A Speaker which is known by most as loudspeaker has been in use for years now and come in two categories; small speakers are found in radios, televisions, Bluetooth players, computers, electronic musical instruments, and other audio players. While the larger speakers are used in big concerts, public address systems, and theaters to reinforce the sound. Their primary purpose is to amplify sound by converting electrical signals into sound signals.
Speakers usually are enclosed in what is known as a cabinet built explicitly for housing speakers, and it is always in the form of a square or rectangle box made out of wood or maybe plastic. To get the best sound from speakers is relatively challenging because the design of the speaker cabinet plays a significant role in the quality of the music that it produces, and this isn’t an easy process to achieve. There are also other factors that determine the performance and production of speakers, and they include; the speaker units, if more than one speaker unit is required in one system, how they are combined with other speaker technologies, and even the surrounding of which it is being used.
Take for instance an event where high-quality reproduction of sound is needed, and the speaker cabinet is built in such a way that multiple speaker technologies can be installed in that same cabinet, all of which play a part in reproducing the audible range of the frequency. Kindly refer to the picture below:
As labelled above:
- Mid-range driver
The Different types of Speaker Technologies
As far as speakers are concerned, there are various technologies used for it. When these speaker technologies are used individually, it could produce the best sound but at a minimal frequency. Once these technologies are combined to get a complete loudspeaker, its best sound production would be at an extended frequency without any limitations. Below is a list of the five of the most popularly used speaker technologies in the world today.
1. Full-range: This particular speaker technology is made such that it can function alone in reproducing an audio channel. Since it can achieve this without the help of other drivers, it is designed to cover the whole audio frequency range. Size wise there are about 3 to 8 inches in diameter, and they are made so small to enable them to allow them to respond to high frequency and reduce any irregular output gotten from low frequencies.
2. Woofer: The responsibility of this speaker technology is to reproduce low frequencies. It is designed to work in tandem with the speaker enclosure to ensure the production of suitable low frequencies. The only time the woofer is isolated from the cabinet is during the initial design.
3. Sub-woofer: Unlike the woofer, this technology is concerned with frequencies that are a lot lower than what the woofer offers in an audio spectrum. Here is a break-down of how low pitch the sub-woofer is used for; it goes below 200Hz in consumer systems, lower than 100Hz for professionally used live sound and as low and even lower than 80Hz in THX-approved systems. The design of a sub-woofer is relatively easy as compared to other speaker technologies, but a quality sub-woofer is quite massive as it could come with integrated amplifiers for power and electronic sub-filters and other controls that are pertinent to low-frequency reproduction like the phase switch.
4. Mid-range: This speaker technology is like an intermediary frequency between the woofer and the tweeter and reproduces a set of frequencies ranging between 1-6kHz. Mid-range technology can take the design of a woofer and installed in the front baffle of the speaker cabinet or designed sort of like a tweeter and mounted at the topmost corner of a horn to boost the output level and further be responsible for the control of the radiation pattern.
5. Tweeter: when it comes to high or the highest frequency production in a speaker, the tweeter technology is responsible for that. During the design of a tweeter, the major challenge that comes during this phase is in trying to get an off-axis response because high-frequency sound ends up leaving the speaker in tight beams.
An extended image of a dome tweeter